Hello this is a video lecture about medieval europe about the secession of kings, church and the power of the pope, who had more power or less power you all remember this pyramid at the top we have the king or queen next we have the nobles who manage smaller piece of land the nobles supervise the knights who protect everybody they give even smaller pieces of land to the peasants who send food and taxes all the way up the line everybody depends on everybody else there is one set of people that's not included in the pyramid that should be and that is the church the church over time became just as or even sometimes more important than the kings and queens in order to understand conversations about the catholic church you have to make sure that you have the vocabulary so some of these words may come from your common sense and your knowledge and other ones you may need to look up but pause right now and make sure you know the meaning of these words catholic church, pope bishop, monks and the monastery and missionaries to put the growth in christianity into the time line into context look here.
At the beginning of the 400's a man named patrick this is this same st. Patrick's from saint patrick's day we celebrate every march he was a christian priest and he started to spread christianity he became missionary and brought christianity to europe his work and the work of other missionaries was so successful that by the year 1055 most of europe had become christians, but in this year 400 it was very very unusual to find any christians in europe king clovis was one of the first european kings to to become a christian in 481 and then by 714 charles martel was also a christian and he was supported by the pope his son pepin also supports the pope and then next come charles charles created a huge european empire he doubles the size of his empire to include germany, france northern spain and italy and he was in fact crowned king by the pope in the year 800 following him came charlemagne and then duke otto who was also crowned by the pool so it seems to becoming almost a requirement in order to be king that the pope supports you 400 patrick became a missionary and then following 597 pope gregory was also inspired by patrick and encouraged many of his monks to become missionaries and to go out into the world and convert people to christianity the missionaries setup monasteries these were places were where monks lived.
In those monasteries they had schools they were writing books and keeping knowledge in many cases they were also hospitals so now the catholic church seems to have power not only over people's spirit they're promising that people will go to heaven and live happily forever and ever and ever if they become christians but they also have power over the bodies of people.
They're taking care of them physically as well so that helps to increase the power of the church more power made more money and with the money comes more influence in politics this starts to become really important under pope gregory the seventh and henry the fourth gregory and henry had a famous argument over who would pick the bishops bishops were church officials high-ranking church officials and the the pope said that he should pick them because they speak for the church and they're part of the church but then the king said what I should be able to pick them because they've actually become very very important in politics and have political power and if they have political power I should get to pick who they are.
So they argued back and forth and finally the king said nope that's it i'm picking the bishops i don't care what you say so the pope responded by excommunicating him that meant he was kicked out of the church which also means that he couldn't go to heaven that the other church members shouldn't talk to him it was quite a big deal so gregory realized he was in really big trouble and he begged for forgiveness but while this happened the german nobles had already picked a new emperor and the pope supported the new emperor and not henry.
Henry actually takes rome by force and he picks a new pope. So there was a lot of back and forth it wasn't always clear who had more power.
What was definitely true is both the pope and the king had a lot of power it worked better when they worked together and when they were against each other it wasn't really clear which was the one that was really in charge this kind of fighting went on and on and and repeated itself in a couple of different situations until the year 1122 when the king and pope at that time signed the concordat of worms which was an agreement and it was called the concordat of worms because it was signed in the city of worms and what this agreement said was that the pope will pick the bishops because they belong in the church but only the king would give them power in the government so if the king didn't want, they didn't have to have power in the government this is one of the real beginnings of the separation between church and and state which is very important today an issue that continues to be talked about here's a political cartoon from 2003 which shows the catholic church.
The pope in this case the politicians are breaking ties with the church and going on and doing their own thing even though the pope is saying you have to do what i say so that's an issue that continues to talk about the separation between church and state the big question to think about from this video lecture do religion and politics go together can you have people that are part of the religious order and also involved in politics or is it best if they are separate.
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